Philosophical arguments are based on premises and conclusions derived from these premises.
A premise is a statement which is either true or false.
A simple example
Premise 1: Rex is a dog
Premise 2: Dogs have four legs
Conclusion: Rex has four legs
For the conclusion to be true, the premises must be true, and the conclusion must follow logically from the premises.
What is Philosophy?
"Philosophy is thinking in slow motion. It means not jumping to conclusions; not taking starting points for granted, but actually trying to carefully unpack why you have the ideas you have; whether they are warranted; whether you ought to change the things that you think so they fit together more plausibly. Philosophy is a kind of critical reflection about just about anything; a set of skills you can bring to just about any question; whether it be a political question, whether it be a question you're facing in your own life, or whether it be a quite technical question."
David Kahane, Department of Philosophy
University of Alberta